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Roy L. Walford, M.D.

Roy L. Walford, M.D. was born in San Diego, California, on June 29, 1924. With pre-medical training at the California Institute of Technology and an M.D. from the University of Chicago, he is licensed to practice medicine in California and in Arizona, and is board certified in Pathologic Anatomy and Clinical Pathology. Currently he resides in Venice, CA, is divorced, has 3 children and 2 grandchildren.

Dr. Walford has been Professor of Pathology at the UCLA School of Medicine since 1966. Other positions have included: from 1962-72, Director of the School of Medical Technology, UCLA Hospital, 1971-80, Director of UCLA Blood Bank, 1990-94, Chief of Medical Operations, Space Biospheres Ventures (Biosphere 2), Oracle, Arizona, and visiting Professor of Surgery, University of Arizona. Advisor to the World Health Organization in Immunology; Counselor to all the International Histocompatibility Workshops; Senatorial Delegate to the White House Conference on Aging in 1981; Fulbright Research Scholar (for study in Germany, 1960, laboratory of Otto Westphal), and a Commonwealth Fund Fellow (for study in France, 1968, laboratory of Nobelist Jean Dausset). He was the physician inside Biosphere 2 during its first two years of closure, 1991-93.

Dr. Walford's scientific career has been focused largely on research into the biology of aging. He has received various honors and awards, including the Levine Award of the American Society of Clinical Pathology, the Research Award of the American Aging Association, the Kleemeier Award from the Gerontological Society of America, the Henderson Award from the American Geriatrics Society, The Senator Alan Cranston Award, and the Infinity Award of the the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine. Asteroid #4629 was named after him by its discoverer (E. Helene) in 1986.

His membership in scientific societies include: the American Aging Association, Gerontological Society of America, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Blood Banks, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, New York Academy of Sciences, and the Explorer's Club (New York).

Television interviews have included featured appearances on the following: In Search Of; Omni's The New Frontier; Nova; the BBC's On Aging; The Merv Griffin Show; Good Morning America; the PBS's War On Aging; CNN's On Aging; ABC's "20/20 Special on Aging"; Canadian TV's The Originals; Primetime Live with Diane Sawyer; and more recently, The Learning Channel (1995): Ultrascience: Forever Young; NBC's Dateline(1995); the BBC's Life Without End (1996); Discovery Magazine (1997); the Discovery Channel (1997); and PBS's Life and Times Tonight,: Science and Aging (1998).

Dr. Walford's books have been variously translated into German, Italien, French, Japanese, and Spanish.

English titles include:
Walford, R.L.: Leukocyte Antigens and Antibodies. New York, Grune and Stratton, Inc. 1960
Walford, R.L. The Isoantigenic Systems of Human Leukocytes: Medical and Biological Significance. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1969, Series Haematologica 2: 1-96, 1969.
Walford, R.L.:The Immunological Theory of Aging. Copenhagen, Munksgaard. 1969.
Walford, R.L. Maximum Life Span. W.W. Norton & Co. N.Y. 1983
Walford, R.L. The 120-Year Diet. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1986
Weindruch, R.H. and Walford, R.L.: The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Charles C. Thomas, N.Y., 1988.
Walford, R.L. and Walford, L.J. :The Anti-Aging Plan. Four Walls Eight Windows, N.Y. 1994.
Walford, R.L. Beyong The 120-Year Diet. Four Walls Eight Windows, N.Y. 2000

In addition, he has published over 325 articles in scientific journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the Naitonal Academy of Science, Journal of Gerontology, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Nutrition, Journal of Experimental Medicine,Journal of Immunology, etc.

Key articles prior to 1995 would include the following:

  1. Walford, R.L.: Auto-Immunity and Aging. J. Gerontol. 17:281, 1962.
  2. Walford, R.L., Gallagher, R. and Sjaarda, J.R.: Serologic Typing of Human Lymphocytes with Immune Serum Obtained after Homografting. Science 144: 868-870, 1964.
  3. Liu, R.K. and Walford, R.L.: Increased Growth and Lifespan with Lowered Ambient Temperature in the Annual Fish, Cynolebis Adloffi. Nature 212:1277-1278, 1966.
  4. Walford, R.L.: Antibody Diversity, Histocompatibility Systems, Disease States, and Aging. Lancet 11: 1226-1229, 1970.
  5. Liu, R.K., and Walford, R.L.: The Effect of Lowered Body Temperature on Lifespan and Immune and Non-Immune Processes. Gerontolgia 18: 363-388, 1972.
  6. Walford, R.L., Waters, H., Smith, G.S., and Sturgeon, P.: Anomalous Reactivity of Certain HL-A Typing Serums with Leukemic Lympho-cytes. Tissue Antigens 3: 222-234, 1973.
  7. Walford, R.L., Liu, R.K., Gerbase-DeLima, M., Mathies, M., and Smith, G.S.: Longterm Dietary Restriction and Immune Function in Mice: Response to Sheep Red Blood Cells and to Mitogenic Agents. Mech. Aging and Development 2: 447-454, 1974.
  8. Meredith, P., and Walford, R.L.: Effect of Age on Response to T and B Cell Mitogens in Mice Congenic at the H-2 Locus. Immunogenetics 5: 109-128, 1977.
  9. Smith, G.S., and Walford, R.L.: Influence of the Main Histocompatibility Complex on Ageing in Mice. Nature 270: 727-729, 1977.
  10. Walford, R.L., and Bergmann, K.: Influence of Genes Associated With the Main Histocompatibility Complex on Deoxyribonucleic Acid Excision Repair Capacity and Bleomycin Sensitivity in Mouse Lymphocytes. Tissue Antigens 14: 336-342, 1979.
  11. Weindruch, R., Cheung, M.K., Verity, M.A., and Walford, R.L.: Modification of Mitochondrial Respiration by Aging and Dietary Restriction. Mech. Ageing & Dev. 12: 375-392, 1980.
  12. Walford, R.L., Jawaid, S., and Naeim, F.: In Vitro Senescence of T-Lymphocytes Cultured from Normal Human Peripheral Blood. AGE 4: 67-70, 1981.
  13. Weindruch, R., Gottesman, S.R.S., and Walford, R.L.: Modification of Age-Related Immune Decline in Mice Dietarily Restricted From or After Mid-Adulthood. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 898-902, 1982.
  14. Weindruch, R., and Walford, R.L.: Dietary Restriction of Mice Beginning at 1 Year of Age: Effect on Life-Span and Spontaneous Cancer Incidence. Science 215: 1415-1418, 1982.
  15. Effros, R.B., and Walford, R.L.: T-Cell Cultures and the Hayflick Limit. Human Immunology 9: 49-65, 1984.
  16. Leveille, P.J., Weindruch, R., Bok, D., Walford, R.L., and Horwitz, J.: Dietary Restriction Retards Age-related Loss of Gamma Crystallins in the Mouse Lens. Science 224: 1247-1249, 1984.
  17. Weindruch, R., Walford, R.L., Fligiel, S., and Guthrie, D.: The Retardation of Aging in Mice by Dietary Restriciton: Longevity, Cancer, Immunity and Lifetime Energy Intake. J. Nutrition 116: 641-654, 1986.
  18. Koizumi, A., Weindruch, R., and Walford, R.L.: Influence of Dietary Restriciton and Age on Liver Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Mice. J. Nutrition 117: 361-367, 1987.
  19. Walford, R.L.: MHC-Regulation of Aging, an Extension of the Immunologic Theory. In Modern Biological Theories of Aging (ed. H.R. Warner, R.N. Butler, R.L. Sprott, and E.L. Schneider). Raven Press, New York, 1987, pp. 243-360.
  20. Walford, R.L., Harris, S., and Weindruch, R.: Dietary Restriction and Aging: Historical Phases, Mechanisms, Current Directions. J. Nutr. 117: 1650-1654, 1987.
  21. Lerner, S.P., Anderson, C.P., Walford, R.L., and Finch, C.E.: Genotypic Influences on Reproductive Aging of Inbred Female Mice: Effect of H-2 and non-H-2 alleles. Biol. of Reprod. 38: 1035-1043, 1988.
  22. Perillo, N.L., Walford, R.L., Newman, M.A., and Effros, R.B.: Human T lymphocytes Possess a Limited In-vitro Lifespan. Exper. Gerontol. 24: 177-187, 1989.
  23. Hibbs, A.R., and Walford, R.L.: A Mathematical Model of Physiological Processes and its Application in the Study of Aging. Mech. Ageing and Develop. 50: 193-214, 1989.
  24. Walford, R.L.: The MHC and Aging in Mammals. In UCLA Symposium, Molecular Biology of Aging (ed. C. Finch & T. Johnson). Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1990, pp. 31-41.
  25. Crew, M.D., Filipowsky, M.E., Zeller, E.C., Smith, G.S., and Walford, R.L.: Major Histocompatibility Complex Class 1 Genes of Peromyscus Leucopus. Immunogenetics 32: 371-379, 1990.
  26. Walford, R.L.: Models for Investigating How Dietary Restriction Retards Aging: The Adaptation Hypothesis. In Biological Effects of Dietary Restriction (ed. L.Fishbein). Springer Verlag 1991, pp. 229-237.
  27. Crew, M.D., Filipowski, M.E., Neshat, M., Smith, G.S., and Walford, R.L.: Transmembrane Domain Length Variation in the Evolution of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class 1 Genes. Proc. Nat.Acad.Sci. 88: 4666-4670, 1991.
  28. Walford, R.L., Harris, S.B., Gunion, M.W.: The Calorically Restricted, Low-fat, Nutrient Dense Diet in Biosphere 2 Significantly Lowers Blood Gluclose, Total White Cell Count, Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure in Humans. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 89: 11533-11537, Dec. 1992.

Inclusive recent scientific publications (for 1996 through 2001) are the following:

  1. Walford, R.L., Bechtel, R., MacCallum, T., Paglia, D., and Weber, L.: “Biospheric Medicine” as Viewed from the 2-year First Closure of Biosphere 2. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 67: 609-617, 1996.
  2. Tillman, J.J., Mote, P.L., Dhahbi, J.M., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Dietary Energy Energy Restriction in Mice Negatively Regulated Hepatic Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (GRP 78) Expression at the Posttranscriptional Level. J. Nutrition. 126: 416-423, 1996.
  3. Tillman, J.B., Dhahbi, J.M., Mote, P.L., Walford, R.L, and Spindler, S.R.: Dietary Calorie Restriction Induces Tissue Specific Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 Gene Transcription. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 3500-3506, 1996.
  4. Koizumi, A., Wada, Y., Tuskada, M., Kayo, T., Naruse, M., Horiuchi, K., Mogi, T., Yoshiola, M., Sasaki, M., Miyamaura, Y., Abe, T., Ohtomo, K., and Walford, R.L.: A Tumor Preventive Effect of Dietary Restriction is Antagonized by a High Housing Temperature through Deprivation of Torpor. Mech. Ageing develop. 92: 67-82, 1996.
  5. Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: A “Hiberation” Hypothesis for the Mechanism Underlying the Effects of Calorie Restriction on Aging. In The Science of Anti-Aging Medicine (ed. R.M. Klatz). A4M Chicago 1996, pp.1-5.
  6. Hass, B.S., Lewis, S.M., Lipshitz, D., Hart, R.W., Duffy, P.H., Ershler, W., Feuers, R.J., Good, R.A., Ingrave, D.K., Lane, M.A., Leakey, J.E.A., Poehlman, E.T., Roth, G.S., Sullivan, A., Turturro, A., Verdery, R.B., Walford, R.L., Weindruch, R., and Yu, B.P.: Dietary Restriction in Humans: Report on the Little Rock Conference on the Value, Feasibility, and Parameters of a Proposed Study. Mech. Ageing Develop. 91: 79-94, 1997.
  7. Spaulding, C.C., Walford, R.L., and Effros, R.B.: The Accumulation of Non-Replicative, Non-Functional Senescent T-cells with Age is Avoided in Calorically Restricted Mice by an Enhancement of T-ceill Apoptosis. Mech. Ageing Develop. 93: 25-33, 1997.
  8. Spaulding, C.C., Walford, R.L., and Effros, R.B.: Caloric Restriction Inhibits the Age-Related Dysregulation of the Cytokines TNF-a and IL-6 in C3B1ORFI Mice. Mech.Ageing Develop. 93: 87-94, 1997.
  9. Walford, R.L. and Spindler, S.R.: The response to caloric restriciton in mammals shows features also common to hibernation: a cross- adaption hypothesis. J. Gerontol. 52A: 1179-183, 1997.
  10. Dhahbi, J.M., Mote, P.L., Tillman, J.B., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Dietary energy tissue-specifically regulates endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gene expression in the liver of mice. J. Nutrition. 127: 1758-1764, 1997.
  11. Verderym R., and Walford, R.L.: Changes in lipids andlipoproteins in humans during a two year period of dietary restriction in Biosphere 2. Archives Int. Med. 158:900-906, 1998.
  12. Crew, M.D., Effros, R.B., Walford, R.L., Zeller, E., Cheroutre, H., and Brahn, E.: Transgenic mice expressing a truncated Peromyscus Ieucopus TNFa gene manifest an arthritis resembling anklyosing spondylitis. J. Interferon and Cytokine Res. 18:219-225, 1998.
  13. Dhahbi, J.M., Tillman, J.B., Cao, S., Mote, P,L., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Caloric intake alters the efficiency of catalase mRNA translation in the liver of old female mice. J. Gerontol. 53A: B180-185, 1998.
  14. Dhahbi, J.M., Mote, P.L., Wingo, J. Tillman, J.B., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Dietary calories and aging alter gene expression for gluconeogenic, glycolytic, and nitrogen-metabolyzing enzymes. Am.J. Physiology 277:E353-E360,1999.
  15. Walford, R.L.: Carbon Sink: a clue from Biosphere 2 (letter). Science 283:330, 1999
  16. Walford, R.L., Mock, D., Maccallum, T., and Laseter, J.: Physiologic changes in humans subjected to severe, selective calorie restriction for two years in Biosphere 2: health, agina and toxicologic perspectives. Toxicological Sciences 52:61-65,1999
  17. Weyer, C., Walford, R.L., Harper, I.T., Milner, M., MacCallum, T., Tataranni, P.A., and Ravussin, E.: Energy metabolism after 2 years of energy restriction: the Biosphere 2 experiment. AM. J. Clinical Nutrition. 72:946-953, 2000.
  18. Dhahbi, J.M., Mote, P.L., Wingo, J.E.,Rowley, B.C., Cao, S.X., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Calorie restriction alter the feeding response of key metabolic enzyme genes. Mech. Ageing and Develop. 122:35-50, 2001.
  19. Dhahbi, J.M., Cao, S.X., Tillman, J.B., Mote, P.L., Madore, M., Walford, R.L., and Spindler, S.R.: Chaperone-mediated regulation of hepatic protein secretion by caloric restriction. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commuin. (in press)
  20. Walford, R.L., Mock, D., Vedrery, R., and Maccallum, T.: Calorie restriction in Biosphere 2: Alterations in physiological, hematological, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a two year period. J. Gerontol. (in press)
  21. Walford, R.L.: Biosphere 2 as Voyage of Discovery: the serendipity from inside. BioScience (in press)

Running parallel to his scientific career, Dr. Walford has been active as a journalist (correspondant for the Los Angeles Free Press; articles in Atlantic Monthly, Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, etc), short story writer (Evergreen Review, the Chicago Review...), published poet, dramatist for his own theater group (the Metastasis), gambler ("broke the bank" in Reno and Las Vegas), yachtsman (see The Rudder Magazine, Dec. 1949), adventurer (see Sunday edition of Los Angeles Times, June 5, 1983: travel section), college wrestler (Captain of Wrestling Team, University of Chicago 1945, 1946), and served in the US Air Force during the Korean War. His mort recent activities have centered on the performance and visual arts, with a number of art gallery presentations and exhibitions. Currently he is working on a music video, the second edition of his book, Maximum Life Span, and a major book and multimedia presentation in connection with his Biosphere 2 experiences.

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